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An Unidentifiable Icon: Nikolaos Gyzis

1§1 Some artists defy all artistic labels. They bounce from named style to named style, never staying long enough to fully earn the title of adherent. These artists synthesize the various styles they experiment with into their own, distinctive, unnameable style. Of this group, few can be called the defining artist of their generation. Even fewer have the right to be called one of the most iconic artists of their nation. Yet Nikolaos Gyzis fits all these descriptions, and many more. Throughout his life, he incorporated many distinct artistic styles and movements into his art, yet he remains identifiable only as one of the greatest Greek artists of the modern era. This paper will provide a history of the life and work of Gyzis. The styles Gyzis encompassed, and some of his most enticing works will be examined in an attempt to define Gyzis’ art by its dominant themes expressed in ever-changing western European tones.

1§2 Born in 1842 in the village of Sklavachori on the Cycladic island of Tinos, Gyzis grew up in Athens, as his family moved to the capital in 1850. Here, he began his artistic education, and first enrolled in the Πολυτεχνείο (School of Fine Arts) at the age of twelve.[1] He graduated nearly three years later in 1864, and received a scholarship to study art in Munich, Germany.[2] This move signified a tremendous changing point in his life. From this point onwards, Gyzis would live the rest of his life, save for two exceptions, in Munich.[3] He would continuously use German and western European techniques and styles in his work, although he frequently, and almost exclusively in his twilight years, added Greek themes and subjects to the mix. A leader of the Munich School, the first offshoot of modern Greek art, his time and training in Munich was essential to the formation of art works he created.[4]  To understand why the move to Munich, and his life there, were essential for Gyzis and Greek art, it is necessary first to understand the state of the Greek nation in the late 1800s.

1§3 Beginning with the capture of Constantinople in 1453, until the start of the Greek War of Independence in 1821, Greece was fully under the control of the Ottoman Empire. During this period, Greece lost nearly all the ties it had once had with Western Europe, and, according to other, later Europeans, with the great time of Ancient Greece. When Greece became a sovereign nation, it had an immediate need for stability. In order to attain this stability, Greece had to establish connections with Western Europe, and establish a national heritage for the developing state that all Greeks could take pride in, and would be willing to fight for.[5] The solution to this joint goal was to reject nearly all of Greece’s Byzantine and Ottoman history, and to solely adopt and rely upon the history and culture of ancient Greece. By doing this, Greece hoped to gain acceptance from Western European nations who, as scholar Antonis Danos writes, “[were] regarded as the modern-day inheritor[s] of the glorious culture that once was Greece.”[6] The quest to reconnect with their ancestors was of the upmost importance for Greek citizens, and, as Danos mentions, for academics and artists in particular. At this same time, Greece had come under the rule of the Bavarian royal family, as the assassination, in 1831, of the newly free state’s first president, Ioannis Kapodistrias, had plunged the newborn nation into chaos.[7] By the Treaty of 1832, Greece was named an independent nation, yet European powers established Otto of Wittelsbach, the son of Ludwig I of Bavaria, as the King of Greece. King Otto was immensely unpopular; Greek citizens resented the “Bavarokratia,” he refused to convert to Greek Orthodoxy, and he, after a coup, reluctantly agreed to grant a constitution which he later reneged on.[8] After another coup in 1862, King Otto fled the country to Bavaria, where he remained in exile until his death.     Following the dismal failure of the Bavarian king to rule the fledgling Greek state successfully, the European nations had to find another dynastic line to govern Greece. The Danish Glücksburg dynasty became the new ruling family. Starting with King George I, who ruled from 1863 until 1913, the Glücksburg family governed Greece well into the twentieth century.[9]

1§4 Greek art did not exist nor proliferate under Ottoman rule. It also did not exist during the Greek War of Independence, nor immediately after. This, according to scholar Alexander Xydis, is due to two primary reasons: Greek religious art was dying off, and there was no demand in Greece for art.[10] Greek religious art, of the Byzantine style, had become hackneyed. The techniques used in this art had been the same for nearly hundreds of years, and the subject matter of these artworks were nearly always the same. The stringent style did not allow for any innovations or even artistic liberty. Thus, people were not particularly interested in acquiring, nor making such pieces. Even those who would be interested in such works, primarily churches, already had enough Byzantine style works. Without a demand for art, and without any new developments, the Greek art scene had dissipated. This all changed with the rule of King Otto. Because Otto switched the capital city from Nafplio to Athens, there was a tremendous need for architects and artists to design and beautify the rural village turned capital city.[11] Otto imported German artists for this purpose, who, looking back to the style of classical Greece, created an “Othonian neoclassical style”[12] with the help of local Greek artists. Suddenly, those Greeks interested in the arts found that they could get jobs, if they could first acquire an artistic education. Otto thus introduced a scholarship program for young Greek artists to train at the Royal Academy of Arts in Munich. Long after Otto was removed from the throne, Greek artists continued to receive their professional artistic training in Munich.[13] This scholarship and trend were the same that young Nikolaos Gyzis followed.

1§5 Traveling to Munich to gain a more in depth and certainly more prestigious education in the arts was of tantamount importance to emerging Greek artists in the mid-nineteenth century. In order to be taken seriously in the well-established art world of western Europe, it was essential that these Greek artists receive an education in a place and at a school that all Europeans would recognize, and Munich was perfect. Munich was such an important art center, that even American journalists visited the city and the Academy to relay to American audiences the beauty of the art produced by the Munich School. A dispatch to the Baltimore Sun reads “the work of the Munich school…is able and pleasing, with many good qualities in it and much diversity. There are many landscape painters among them…excellent landscapes that show a fine feeling for nature, and a sympathy with it in its milder moods.”[14] The city, along with Paris, was a center of art in Europe in the mid and late 1800s, and Greek artists had an easy connection and opportunity to study there. Munich afforded Greek artists, and Gyzis in particular, the opportunity to make a name for themselves in western Europe.

1§6 Here, in Munich, Gyzis would have been exposed to the newest styles, learned the works and histories of the great masters, and would have seen and experienced a countryside and culture totally different from his own. From the start of his sojourn in Munich until his first return trip to Greece in 1872, Gyzis mainly painted genre scenes. Genre painting originated in the seventeenth century in the Netherlands and in Germany, and Gyzis would have been fully educated in this style.[15] The pieces he painted while working within this style almost always portray German scenes.[16] The painting entitled Ειδησιες Νικης (News of Victory) is an early example of Gyzis’ German centric Genre painting. He painted Figure 1 in Munich in 1871. Using earth tones, brown, and grey shades that occasionally characterize German genre painting, Gyzis also represented the characters in contemporary German clothing.[17] The context of the scene is explicitly German as well. Here, the French flag lies upon the ground, while the man from the upper floor of the building waves a Prussian flag. The elevation of the Prussian flag over that of the French refers to the Prussian victory in the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871). Further alluding to this victory, that same man holds a sign that bears the name of Napoleon, referring to Napoleon III who ruled France during this time period. On the ground level, children gaze up in amazement at the sign and the flag, and some adults, at the right side of the frame, also smile while looking upward. In the leftmost corner, Gyzis has posed another group of adults who look over an old man’s shoulder to read a piece of paper, perhaps a declaration documenting how the war has ended. At the far right, a woman dressed in black, perhaps a widow, holds an infant whilst standing near a flag, with her back turned away from the celebration in the street. A wounded soldier, parked next to her, and gazes intently at the child hiding behind her mother. Further in the background, more wounded veterans are arranged speaking to each other, and another flag is being waved far in the distance by what appears to be a parade of happy, and victorious people. This painting fully showcases Gyzis’ early tendencies, in his genre scenes, towards painting pieces that are German not only in character, but also in style.

1§7 Aside from two trips to Greece in the 1870s, Gyzis would remain in Munich for the rest of his life.[18] Yet after the first trip, his paintings and style took a marked turn towards contemporary Greek themes and subjects. As recounted by Danos, Gyzis began to incorporate brighter and a wider array of colors into his work, avoiding the somber colors of his former genre scenes, and dropped most of the German subjects he had previously focused upon.[19] This turn is best exemplified in his 1875 painting Έρωτας που επιτίθεται σε Νύμφη (Cupid attacking the Nymph). Figure 2 was painted nearly a year after his return from Greece. The subject matter is entirely Greek in nature, yet does not focus on Gyzis’ contemporary Greece, but rather on Ancient Greece. The deities, Eros and the nymph, are both creations of Ancient Greek mythology. The nymph’s dress echoes classical garb, or at least romanticized European ideas of such.

1§8 As the nineteenth century progressed, Gyzis’ style became increasingly more modern and fantastical. Thanks to his location in Munich, Gyzis was at the center of the formation of Jugendstil and Symbolism.[20] Yet, despite the evidence of the influence of these predominately western European styles on his work, Gyzis maintained his newfound dedication to portraying Greek subjects and themes. Σπουδή για αλληγορική σύνθεση (Study for an Allegoric Composition), which he painted from 1874-1876, shows Gyzis’ progressive tendencies. In Figure 3, large, colorful brushstrokes lend a sense of agitation, movement, and life to the piece. The thick, black outlines distinguish the figures and shapes from one another. Yet, further into the background, although the black lines continue to seek to define shapes, the identity of the figures is undefinable. At the left, one woman runs her hands through her hair in a sign of distress, while at the center, presumably the cause of the woman’s distress, another woman is being cornered and attacked. The attacked woman (cloaked in white) is one of few clothed figures in the scene, and the only one dressed in white. The physical agitation on the first level of the painting is echoed in the second level: the sky. Yet the agitation here is not caused by the acts of individuals as in the first level, but rather by Gyzis’ loose and textured brushstrokes. There are also appear to be flying shapes in the background, though the direction or purpose of these shapes is unidentifiable. Perhaps they are deities, or perhaps they are the souls of those troubled individuals on the ground floor. The Greek themes in this piece derive from the opposition of the clothed and naked individuals. In Ancient Greece, nude statues were considered to showcase the pinnacle of human beauty and perfection. However, many clothed statues, and many later Europeans’ interpretations and homages, show deities to be clothed. The nude figures could be depictions of humans, while the clothed are gods. The loose material of the robes also refers back to Ancient Greece, where loose garments, although belted and fastened in some way, were the fashion. Gyzis’ ability to look to future and contemporary artistic trends, while also using conventional images and ideas of the Ancient Greeks, is key to his paintings, and his success as an artist.

1§9 Danos notes that Gyzis’ work not only incorporated distinctly Greek themes, but also orientalist themes.[21] He refers to this tendency, perhaps inspired by Greece’s years under Ottoman rule and the continued presence of Greeks in the Middle East, in his 1880 piece, Γέροντας (Elder). The bright colors in Figure 4 are high-keyed, and clearly distinguish this painting from his previous works, particularly from those somber genre scenes. Again, the large and loose brushstrokes lend the painting a sense of life and movement. Yet it is only the hat and the decorations trailing off from the hat that portray any signs of animation. These areas are textured, fluid, and brightly colored. The man’s face is still, without any of the large strokes, colors, and textures seen in his turban. Moreover, the man’s large beard, olive complexion, and prominent nose also lend an eastern air to him. The black background is typical of portraiture, as is the profile view of the man. The only part of the man that is alive is his eye, which seems to be looking out of the painting and straight at the viewer. This alert and watchful attitude of the man is alluded to in the piece’s title, as an elder is supposed to be omniscient and vigilant.

1§10 One of Gyzis’ best known and cherished pieces is Η Αράχνη (The Spider), completed in 1884. This painting is a quintessential example of Symbolism. An invention of the late nineteenth century, the Symbolist movement reconnected with certain aspects of Romanticism, without any of the harshness of Realism, added in with many otherworldly and ethereal images and subjects. Here, Gyzis maintains his dedication to classical Greek themes, while painting in a truly Symbolist manner. The title and the woman weaving a web at center both refer to the Ancient Greek myth of a woman named Arachne. Arachne, according to legend, was a mortal who challenged the goddess Athena to a weaving competition. Arachne lost, and Athena forbade her from ever weaving again. Yet, Athena was touched by Arachne’s genuine sadness at the loss of her craft, and turned her into a spider so that she could weave forever.[22] Figure 5 shows the end of the fateful competition, as Arachne, still in human form, holds up her completed web for viewing. She glances at something or someone outside of the frame, perhaps she is looking at Athena’s weaving or is in anticipation of being transformed into a spider. Even the rigidity and elegance of her arms are reminiscent of those of an insect, and foreshadow her future purpose as an arachnid. Compositionally, Arachne is the only light in the dark landscape of the painting, and her brightness illuminates her latticework. The loose strokes add to the sense of motion in the floor, walls, and her dress, yet the strokes are organized enough to avoid any feeling of brusque agitation. Arachne’s face is the only still part of the painting, and her face and reaction are the focal points of the composition. Her blank face is a startling placidity emerging from the murky, shifting shadows that occupy the rest of the image. Only her eyes relay any sense of bodily movement or emotion. Here, Gyzis showcases his distinct talent for marrying his Greek heritage, the contemporary and fashionable style of the day, and Ancient Greek lore.

1§11 Gyzis’ later works rejected the lighter tones exhibited in his pieces from the late 1870s to the early 1880s. These images are darker not only in coloration, but also in their subject matter. With the passing of time Gyzis’ pieces focused solely on Greek themes, not only ancient subjects but also relatively recent historical events. In Μετά την καταστροφή των Ψαρών (After the Disaster of Psara), painted in 1896, Gyzis explicitly focuses on one of the most tragic events in the Greek War of Independence (1821-1832). During the war, Psara, due to its strategic location in the northern Aegean for the invading Ottoman fleet, was shelled and later burned in its entirety by the Ottomans. 6,500 inhabitants of the island perished.[23]  The deadly fate of Psara persisted in the minds of Greeks for many years afterwards, as is evidenced by Gyzis’ painting. In Figure 6, inhabitants who were lucky enough to escape the island are seen fleeing across inky black waters, underneath a stormy sky. The entire mood of the piece, from the muted palette to the frenzied and deadly activities of those in the painting, is dark and serious. Some people have fallen from the tipping boat into the sea, and others are fiercely holding on to the vessel and each other, while others still huddle in the corner of the boat out of fear. The only person standing, the man in the red Phrygian cap, a symbol of liberty, attempts to steer the rocking craft. The only identifiable object in a higher plane than the brave man is a white and blue flag, topped by a gold cross. Here, Gyzis shows the Greek trifecta: family, country, and faith. All the people on these boats are family in that they are all enduring the same hardship, and they are enduring it together. The people try to help each other, in the case of the woman in orange attempting to reach out to a victim in the water, and comfort each as the huddled people at the front of the boat do too.  The Greek nation is represented by the flag, under which all of the Greek people are united. Finally, the cross, Greek Orthodoxy, unites all individuals and the state. Gyzis communicates the heroism and common unifiers that allowed Greece to win the war for its sovereignty. In the piece, Gyzis seamlessly demonstrates his Greek patriotism, mixed in with dismal themes and colors, while still using the new, and fashionable Symbolist approach.

1§12 The enormous emphasis Gyzis placed on modern Greek history, culture, and religion in his later work is due to the Greco-Turkish War of 1897, and the ensuing resurgence of Greek patriotism. Also called the Thirty Days’ War, it began as an 1896 revolt in Crete (still separate from the nation of Greece at this time) against its Ottoman rulers.[24] Greece, eager to add Crete to its territory, sent troops to the island and declared it to be unified with the mainland. In order to avoid a fever-like revolutionary spirit from spreading to the rest of the Balkans under Ottoman control, several European powers imposed a blockade on supply ships leaving Greece for Crete, and Greece was forced to accept a peace treaty with the Ottoman Empire.[25] By the treaty, the Greek nation was forced to pay reparations to the Ottoman Empire, to accept an external financial committee to control its finances, and to cede territory in Thessaly to the Ottomans. After the treaty, Ottoman troops withdrew from Crete, and Crete became a sovereign nation under Prince George, the son of King George I.[26] Greece, following the conflict, was humiliated. Gyzis would have felt this same humiliation, and was determined to show that the Greek spirit, although temporarily diminished, was unquenchable and would eventually be victorious, just as in the Greek War of Independence. Gyzis sought “to revive the idea of regenerating Greece”[27], and he expressed this goal wholeheartedly in his later works.

1§13 Darkness (in both palette and subject matter) and Greek patriotism now, in the late 1890s, are prominent facets of Gyzis’ work. He continued to paint scenes inspired by Greek War of Independence, modern Greece’s most successful military conflict, and none is more famous than his painting Η Δόξα των Ψαρών (The Glory of Psara), which he completed in 1899. The island of Psara, and the tragedy that occurred there weighed heavily on the mind of Gyzis, as he returned to this one theme repeatedly. This piece, unlike the former, does not focus on the struggles of everyday Greeks in their quest for survival against the impending Turkish invasion. The focal point of Figure 7 is its titular character, Glory. Here, glory is personified as a woman, dressed in billowing white robes that are reminiscent of Ancient Greece. She is also winged, which serves as a reference to the ancient Goddess Nike, the winged deity of victory. Glory walks barefoot and pensive across the charcoal remains of Psara. She is deep in thought bent over her pen and notebook. As the curator of the National Gallery – Alexandros Soutzos Museum, Nafplio Annex, Ms. Lambrini Karakourti, explains:

1§14 The “Glory” is portrayed from a frontal view, walking on the all black back of Psara, very angry (for the burned and ruined island), and holding in one hand a tablet, ready to record with her pen the names of the glorious, brave young men who perished on Psara in the fight for Greek independence. The beams in the background stress the spirituality of the work, in line with the artist’s interest in communicating the significance of the event. Glory is upset over the loss of Greek lives, yet she is earnestly proud of the Greek spirit, and her presence alone symbolizes that Greece, despite setbacks, will yet win in the fight against the Ottoman Empire.

1§15The theme of victory just beyond the horizon is capitalized by the light shining from behind Glory, and illuminating her and her list. Her surroundings are nebulous and bleak, yet the light of victory is within reach. Gyzis maintains his Greek pride and spirit by depicting solely Greek scenes. Yet his manner of depiction, is modern by his contemporary standards, and distinctly western European.

1§16 Towards the end of his life, Gyzis sank deeper into Stygian color schemes and religious themes. The pieces remained truly Greek in their subject matter, yet Gyzis had moved on to the newest artistic style: Jugendstil. Literally meaning “youth style,” Jugendstil is the German offshoot of Art Nouveau, and began in Munich. The style is characterized by arabesque and abstractness.[28] Gyzis passed away in 1901, yet, even in his old age, he continued to experiment with the newest styles and trends while maintaining his commitment to Greek themes. One of his last pieces, completed over the course of five years in 1900, Ιδού ο Νυμφίος Έρχεται (Behold the Bridegroom Comes), is also one of his gloomiest. Perhaps aware of his imminent death, Gyzis spent years perfecting this painting portraying the Second Coming of Christ. The titular bridegroom refers to Christ. The term bridegroom is used as Christ is symbolically married to the Church, and the Church represents all of humanity.[29] In the act of returning, Christ demonstrates his love of humankind. In Figure 8, angels above and next to Christ, bearing trumpets and other accoutrements, notify the smaller, kneeling angels and the viewer that Christ has returned. The angels in rows descending the staircase kneel in gestures of respect and fealty, encouraging the viewer to do the same. The dark vignette and ethereal red color emanating from the center behind the enthroned Christ lend an eerie and ominous feel to the piece. Christ himself is hard to distinguish, yet he is identifiable by the thick, Byzantine inspired halo, the scepter he holds in his right hand, and the Gospel he holds in his left. Gyzis’ portrayal of the scene is deeply influenced by descriptions of the Second Coming in the Bible, particularly those in the Books of Revelation and Matthew. The dense surrounding of clouds comes directly out of the Book of Revelation: “behold, he cometh with clouds; and every eye shall see him…”[30] The heavy clustering of angels is from the Book of Matthew, 25:31-46, as Matthew wrote: “when the son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory.”[31] Gyzis’ adherence to these Biblical scenes demonstrates his own piety, and his belief that Christianity is an important component of the Greek nation and character. The decorative quality with which he painted the piece adheres to the characteristics of Jugendstil, yet also allowed him to avoid being too explicit in his detailing of the second coming. By steering away from defined details, Gyzis permits viewers to imagine the terrible awe and specificities of the Judgment Day on their own. The painting seeks to overwhelm and humble all who look upon it, and to remind them of their own mortality, just as Gyzis must have been reminded of his every time he painted.

1§17 Throughout his career, Gyzis experienced and learned from some of the most defining artistic movements of western Europe. Despite his exposure to so many styles, he never settled on just one to follow. Instead, Gyzis experimented with these diverse styles, into which he incorporated Greek ideas, themes, and subjects, all the while maintaining his own individuality. Although Nikolaos Gyzis is one the most iconic, and defining artists of Modern Greece, his style remains unnamable, though identifiable by his portrayal of Greek scenes. Perhaps that is what he would have wanted, to be defined by the spirit of Greece, past and present.

[1] Αντωνης Κωτιδης, Ελληνικη Τεχνη Ζωγραφικη 19ου Αιωνα (Αθήνα: Εκδοτικη Αθηνων, 1995), 260.

[2] Antonis Danos, “Nikolaos Gyzis’s The Secret School and an Ongoing National Discourse.” Nineteenth-Century Art Worldwide. 2002. N.P. [Online] Available. http://www.19thc-artworldwide.org/spring05/82-autumn02/autumn02article/258-nikolaos-gyziss-the-secret-school-and-an-ongoing-national-discourse> Accessed December 19, 2016.

[3] Danos, N.P.

[4] Danos, N.P.

[5] Danos, N.P.

[6] Danos, N.P.

[7] Encyclopaedia Britannica, “Ioannis Antonios, Komis Kapodistrias.” October 9, 2014. [Online] Available. < https://www.britannica.com/biography/Ioannis-Antonios-Komis-Kapodistrias> Accessed December 20, 2016.

[8] Encyclopaedia Britannica, “Greece.” November 9, 2016. [Online] Available. < https://www.britannica.com/place/Greece/Building-the-nation-1832-1913> Accessed December 20, 2016.

[9] Encyclopaedia Britannica. “Greece.”

[10] Alexander Xydis, “Greek Art in the European Context.” Journal of Modern Greek Studies, Volume 2, Number 2, pp. 141-162. 142. October 1984. [Online] Available. < http://muse.jhu.edu.proxy.library.georgetown.edu/article/264367/pdf> Accessed December 18, 2016.

[11] Xydis, 141-162. 143-144.

[12] Xydis, 141-162. 144.

[13] Xydis, 141-162. 144.

[14] Special Dispatch to the Baltimore Sun.  MODERN ART IN MUNICH. September 21, 1897. The Sun (1837-1991) Retrieved from http://proxy.library.georgetown.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/535854684?accountid=11091 Accessed December 21, 2016.

[15] Danos, N.P.

[16] Danos, N.P.

[17] Danos, N.P.

[18] Danos, N.P.

[19] Danos, N.P.

[20] Danos, N.P.

[21] Danos, N.P.

[22] Greek Mythology, “Arachne.” 2016. [Online] Available. < http://www.greekmythology.com/Myths/Mortals/Arachne/arachne.html> Accessed December 22, 2016.

[23] Psara Travel, “History.” [Online] Available. < http://www.psaratravel.gr/en/Psara/History> Accessed December 22, 2016.

[24] Encyclopaedia Britannica, “Greco-Turkish Wars.” May 23, 2016. [Online] Available. < https://www.britannica.com/topic/Greco-Turkish-wars> Accessed December 22, 2016.

[25] Encyclopaedia Britannica, “Greco-Turkish Wars.”

[26] Encyclopaedia Britannica, “Greco-Turkish Wars.”

[27] Δρ. Μιχάλης Δουλγερίδης, Πεμπτουσια. “Νικολάου Γύζη: Η Δόξα των Ψαρών.” July 16, 2011. [Online] Available. < https://www.pemptousia.gr/2011/06/nikolaou-gizi-i-doxa-ton-psaron/> Accessed December 23, 2016.

[28] Encyclopaedia Britannica. “Jugendstil.” October 13, 2006. [Online] Available. < https://www.britannica.com/art/Jugendstil> Accessed December 23, 2016.

[29] Θ. Ι. Ρηγινιώτης. Ορθόδοξη Ομάδα Δογματικής Έρευνας. “Τι σαμαίνει <<Ιδού ο Νυμφίος έρχεται…>>.” [Online] Available. < http://oodegr.co/oode/orthod/eortes/nymfios_erxetai_1.htm> Accessed December 23, 2016.

[30] Revelation, 1:7, The Holy Bible: King James Version. New York: Ivy, 1991.

[31] Matthew, 25:31-46, The Holy Bible: King James Version. New York: Ivy, 1991.

 

The author would like to thank two members of Georgetown University’s faculty who greatly assisted in shaping this work: Professor Ismini Lamb, Director of the Modern Greek Studies Program, and Professor Elizabeth Prelinger, of Art History and Modern Art. Special thanks are also extended to Lambrini Karakouti, Director of the National Gallery – Alexandros Soutzos Museum, Nafplio Annex, Greece.

All images referenced in this text are derived from Αντωνης Κωτιδης, Ελληνικη Τεχνη Ζωγραφικη 19ου Αιωνα (Αθήνα: Εκδοτικη Αθηνων, 1995).


Bibliography

Danos, Antonis. “Nikolaos Gyzis’s The Secret School and an Ongoing National Discourse.” Nineteenth-Century Art Worldwide. 2002. [Online] Available. <http://www.19thc-artworldwide.org/spring05/82-autumn02/autumn02article/258-nikolaos-gyziss-the-secret-school-and-an-ongoing-national-discourse> Accessed December 19, 2016.

Δρ. Δουλγερίδης, Μιχάλης. Πεμπτουσια. “Νικολάου Γύζη: Η Δόξα των Ψαρών.” July 16, 2011. [Online] Available. < https://www.pemptousia.gr/2011/06/nikolaou-gizi-i-doxa-ton-psaron/> Accessed December 23, 1016.

Encyclopaedia Britannica. “Greco-Turkish Wars.” May 23, 2016. [Online] Available. < https://www.britannica.com/topic/Greco-Turkish-wars> Accessed December 22, 2016.

Encyclopaedia Britannica. “Greece.” November 9, 2016. [Online] Available. < https://www.britannica.com/place/Greece/Building-the-nation-1832-1913> Accessed December 20, 2016.

Encyclopaedia Britannica. “Ioannis Antonios, Komis Kapodistrias.” October 9, 2014. [Online] Available. < https://www.britannica.com/biography/Ioannis-Antonios-Komis-Kapodistrias> Accessed December 20, 2016.

Encyclopaedia Britannica. “Jugendstil.” October 13, 2006. [Online] Available. < https://www.britannica.com/art/Jugendstil> Accessed December 23, 2016.

Κωτιδης, Αντωνης. Ελληνικη Τεχνη-Ζογραφικη 19ου Αιωνα. Εκδοτικη Αθηκων, 1961.

Matthew, 25:31-46, The Holy Bible: King James Version. New York: Ivy, 1991.

Psara Travel. “History.” [Online] Available. < http://www.psaratravel.gr/en/Psara/History> Accessed December 22, 2016.

Revelation, 1:7,  The Holy Bible: King James Version. New York: Ivy, 1991.

Special Dispatch to the Baltimore Sun.  MODERN ART IN MUNICH. September 21, 1897. The Sun (1837-1991) Retrieved from http://proxy.library.georgetown.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/535854684?accountid=11091 Accessed December 21, 2016.

Θ. Ι. Ρηγινιώτης. Ορθόδοξη Ομάδα Δογματικής Έρευνας. “Τι σαμαίνει <<Ιδού ο Νυμφίος έρχεται…>>.” [Online] Available. < http://oodegr.co/oode/orthod/eortes/nymfios_erxetai_1.htm> Accessed December 23, 2016.

Xydis, Alexander. “Greek Art in the European Context.” Journal of Modern Greek Studies, Volume 2, Number 2, pp. 141-162. 142. October 1984. [Online] Available. < http://muse.jhu.edu.proxy.library.georgetown.edu/article/264367/pdf> Accessed December 18, 2016.

Images

Figure 1

nike

Ειδησεις Νικης, 1871, oil on canvas, Neue Pinakothek, Munich, Germany.

Figure 2

eros

Έρωτας που επιτίθεται σε Νύμφη, 1875, oil on canvas, National Gallery, Athens, Greece.

Figure 3

ΑΛΛΗΓΟΡΙΑ

Σπουδή για αλληγορική σύνθεση, 1874-1876, oil on canvas, private collection.

Figure 4

Gyzis_Nikolas_Old_man's_head

Γέροντας, c. 1880, oil on canvas, National Gallery, Greece.

Figure 5

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Η Αράχνη, 1884, oil on wood, National Gallery, Athens, Greece.

Figure 6

Gysis_Nikolaos_After_the_destruction_of_Psara

Μετά την καταστροφή των Ψαρών, 1896, oil on canvas, National Gallery, Greece.

Figure 7

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Η Δόξα των Ψαρών, 1899, oil on canvas, private collection.

Figure 8

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Ιδού ο Νυμφίος έρχεται, 1900, oil on canvas, National Gallery, Athens, Greece.

Image Bibliography

Ειδησεις Νίκης. Artivity: The Big Art Project. [Online] Available. < http://artivity.gr/p/813/pinakes-zografikis-eidiseis-nikis-nikolaos-gyzis-canvas-ellines-zografoi-poster-victory-news-nikolaos-gyzis-oil-painting-anthropoi-dromos-greek-painters-people Accessed December 17, 2016.

Έρωτας που επιτίθεται σε Νύμφη. Pinterest. [Online] Available. < https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/564x/9c/3d/37/9c3d373f0920f87b158ffce9a4ee64e8.jpg> Accessed December 17, 2016.

Σπουδή για αλληγορική σύνθεση. Vaspik Blogspot. [Online] Available. < http://4.bp.blogspot.com/–NQsUsOMWtw/TaGYpu2EtDI/AAAAAAAABI4/9e8xj1RREnk/s640/%25CE%2591%25CE%259B%25CE%259B%25CE%2597%25CE%2593%25CE%259F%25CE%25A1%25CE%2599%25CE%2591.jpg> Accessed December 16, 2016.

Γέροντας. Wikipedia. [Online] Available. < https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%91%CF%81%CF%87%CE%B5%CE%AF%CE%BF:Gyzis_Nikolas_Old_man%27s_head.jpg> Accessed December 17, 2016.

Η Αράχνη. Wikiart. [Online] Available. < https://www.wikiart.org/en/nikolaos-gyzis/the-spider-1884?utm_source=returned&utm_medium=referral&utm_campaign=referral>Accessed December 18, 2016.

Μετά την καταστροφή των Ψαρών. Wikimedia. [Online] Available. < https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2e/Gysis_Nikolaos_After_the_destruction_of_Psara.jpg/220px-Gysis_Nikolaos_After_the_destruction_of_Psara.jpg> Accessed December 19, 2016.

Η Δόξα των Ψαρών. Πεμπτουσια. [Online] Available. < https://www.pemptousia.gr/2011/06/nikolaou-gizi-i-doxa-ton-psaron/> Accessed December 19, 2016.

Ιδού ο Νυμφίος Έρχεται. Πεμπτουσια. [Online] Available. < https://www.pemptousia.gr/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/N_01-copy.jpg> Accessed December 17, 2016.

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